Scripting: Values

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A value describes a data holder; a value is either a variable (that can be changed) or a constant (that cannot be changed).

Values are declared in Enfusion with a type, in format type identifier = value (= value being optional). Enfusion Script uses strong types, which means a value's type cannot be changed along its lifetime.


Identifier

An identifier is the actual name of a value; it identifies the value. The naming rules are:

  • an identifier can be composed of ASCII letters, numbers and underscores
  • an identifier must start with an underscore or a letter (cannot start with a number)
  • an identifier is case-sensitive
  • an identifier cannot be identical to a keyword

The regular expression to be respected is: ^[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*$

It is recommended to write variable identifiers in camelCase, (e.g aNewVariable) and constants' in UPPER_CASE (e.g A_NEW_CONSTANT). See Arma Reforger Variable Conventions for naming conventions.

int myNumber = 10;
int _myNumber = 10;
int myNUMBER = 10;		// different from myNumber

int 1number = 1;		// wrong - starts with a number
int my#variable = 1;	// wrong - contains a character that is not letter/number/underscore
int auto = 1;			// wrong - the "auto" keyword exists and cannot be replaced


Value Declaration

Declaring a value is done by using a type and an identifier:

int myNumber;	// variable myNumber is declared and auto-initialised to 0

myNumber = 10;	// myNumber is now 10

It can also be directly created with a value:

int myNumber = 10;

const

A value can be made constant, meaning that it will remain the same along its lifetime.

string value1 = "value";			// value1's value is "value"
const string CONST_VALUE = "value";

value1 = "new value";				// value1 is now "new value"
CONST_VALUE = "new value";			// error: cannot modify a const value

An object (array, set, map, other class instance) can be const yet still have its values changed - const here only keeps the reference and does not "freeze" the object in place.

const ref array<string> STRINGS = {};

STRINGS.Insert("Hello there");		// OK: the array remains the same, its content is changed
STRINGS = null;						// error: cannot modify a const value


Passing a Value

By Content

// integers (whole numbers) are passed by content
int myVar1 = 33;
int myVar2 = myVar1;	// myVar2 is 33 - it copied myValue1's content
myVar2 = 42;			// myVar2 is now 42, myVar1 is still 33 - they are two different values

By Reference

// arrays (list of values) are passed by reference
array<int> myArray1 = { 0, 1, 2, 3 };
array<int> myArray2 = myArray1;	// myArray2 targets myArray1 object - value is not copied but referenced
myArray2[0] = 99;				// myArray1 is now { 99, 1, 2, 3 };


Types

Values can be of various types, listed below.

Notions:

  • Passed by: content or reference - see above
  • Naming prefix: used in Object's (member) variable convention: m_prefixVariableName (e.g: m_bPlayerIsAlive = true)
  • Default value: the default value given when a value is declared without content (e.g: int value - the variable here is 0, integer's default value)
Incorrect Correct

bool variable = true;
if (variable)
{
	variable = "it works!"; // not - variable is and remains a boolean
	Print(variable);
}

bool variable = true;
if (variable)
{
	string display = "it works!"; // correct
	Print(display);
}

Primitive Types

Type name C++ equivalent Range Default value Size (Bytes)
int int32 -2,147,483,648 through +2,147,483,647 0 4
float float ±1.18E-38 through ±3.402823E+38 0.0 4
bool bool true or false false 4
string char* - "" (empty string) 8 (pointer) + (length × 1 byte)
vector float[3] like float { 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 } 8 (pointer) + (3 × float) 12*
void void - - -
class Instance* pointer to any script object null 8
typename VarType* pointer to type structure null 8

*the asterisk in C++ means a pointer.

Boolean

Passed by: value

Naming prefix: b

Default value: false

A boolean is a value that can be either true or false . For example, boolean result = 10 > 5; result can either be true or false.

Example:

bool myValue;		// myValue is false
myValue = 10 > 0;	// myValue is true


Integer

Passed by: value

Naming prefix: i

Default value: 0

Range: -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647

Description: An integer (or int) is a whole number, meaning a value without decimals. It can be positive or negative.

Example:

int myValue;	// myValue is 0
myValue = 20;	// myValue is 20
myValue /= 3;	// myValue is 6: 20 / 3 = 6.666… which gets floored to 6 (and not rounded)

Float

Passed by: value

Naming prefix: f

Default value: 0.0

Range: 1.18 E-38 to 3.40 E+38

A float, or its full name floating-point number is a number that can have decimals.

Precision is a matter at hand when working with floats; do not expect exact calculations: 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1 != 0.3 - rounding would be needed to have the result one can expect.

The further away from 0 the float value is, the less precision it has.
For "almost equal" comparison, see float.AlmostEqual; the default accepted difference (epsilon) is 0.0001 (1/10000) and can be set for each operation as an optional third argument.

Example:

float myValue;	// myValue is 0 (or 0.0)
myValue = 1;	// myValue is 1 (or 1.0)
myValue /= 3;	// myValue is 0.333333…

float originalValue = 1;
float divisionResult = originalValue/3333;
float result = divisionResult * 3333;
originalValue == result;					// returns false due to floating point precision
float.AlmostEqual(originalValue, result);	// returns true

String

Passed by: value

Naming prefix: s

Default value: "" (empty string)

Maximum length: 2,147,483,647 characters

Description: a string is a sequence of characters; it supports the following escape characters: \n (line return) \r (caret return) \t (horizontal tabulation) \\ (antislash) \" (double quote).

  • A string cannot be null
  • String comparison is case-sensitive; e.g
    "abc" != "ABC"
    

Example:

string username;		// username is "" (empty string)
username = "Player 1";	// username is "Player 1";

Enum

Passed by: value

Naming prefix: e

Default value: 0 (which may not exist in the enum)

An enum is a value that offers a choice between defined options.

"Behind the curtains" it is also an integer that can be assigned to an int variable.

Examples:

enum EHealthState
{
	ALIVE,
	INJURED,
	UNCONSCIOUS,
	DEAD,
};

EHealthState healthState;				// healthState is ALIVE (0)
healthState = EHealthState.UNCONSCIOUS;	// healthState is UNCONSCIOUS (4)
int myValue = EHealthState.ALIVE;		// valid

By default, the first value is equal to 0 and the next values are incremented by 1.

enum EHealthState
{
	ALIVE = 42,
	INJURED,			// equals 43
	UNCONSCIOUS = 50,
	DEAD,				// equals 51
};

EHealthState healthState;				// healthState is 0 (no corresponding enum)
healthState = EHealthState.INJURED;		// healthState is 43 (INJURED)
int myValue = EHealthState.ALIVE;		// 42
// an enum value can also be defined through bit shifting for e.g flag usage
enum ELifeStatus
{
	HEALTHY		= 1 << 0, // 1
	HAS_HOUSE	= 1 << 1, // 2
	HAS_FOOD	= 1 << 2, // 4
};

Vector

Passed by: value

Naming prefix: v

Default value: { 0, 0, 0 }

A vector is a type that holds three float values. Two vectors can be compared with == for value comparison.

Example:

// there are three ways to create a vector
vector myVector;					// myVector is { 0, 0, 0 }
vector myVector = { 0, 1.5, 2 };
vector myVector = "0 1.5 2";

vector otherVector = "0 1.5 2";
myVector == otherVector;			// true

// edition of one vector value
vector myVector2 = myVector;
myVector[1] = 42;					// myVector is now { 0, 42, 2 }
myVector == myVector2;				// false

// edition of the whole vector
myVector2 = { 0, 42, 2 };			// syntax "0 42 2" works too
myVector == myVector2;				// true

Array

Passed by: reference (dynamic array) or value (static array)

Naming prefix: a

Default value: null (not an empty array)

Maximum size:

An array is a list of values. In Enforce Script, an array can only hold one type of data (defined in its declaration).

There are two types of array in Enfusion:

  • dynamic array: "list" that will extend the more items are added
  • static array: fixed-size list of items - items can be changed, but the array size cannot

Example:

array<string> dynamicArray = {};
string staticArray[2] = { "Hello", "" };

dynamicArray.Insert("Hello");	// dynamicArray = { "Hello" };
dynamicArray.Insert("");		// dynamicArray = { "Hello", "" };

dynamicArray[1] = "there";		// dynamicArray = { "Hello", "there" };
staticArray[1] = "there";		// staticArray = { "Hello", "there" };

// dynamic/static arrays cannot be directly compared for values; == would compare pointers (a.k.a is it the same array, not the same values)
dynamicArray == staticArray;		// false
dynamicArray[0] == staticArray[0];	// true
dynamicArray[1] == staticArray[1];	// true

Set

Passed by: reference

Naming prefix: none

Default value: null (not an empty set)

A set is a list that ensures uniqueness of values. Due to this uniqueness check, item insertion is slower than for an Array; however, checking if an item is contained is faster.

Example:

set<string> setInstance = new set<string>();

setInstance.Insert("Hello there");
setInstance.Insert("General Kenobi");
setInstance.Insert("Hello there");		// setInstance will still only contain "Hello there" and "General Kenobi"

setInstance.Get(0); // the values order is never guaranteed as it can change on value insertion!

Map

Passed by: reference

Naming prefix: m

Default value: null (not an empty map)

A map is a list of key-value pairs, also known as a dictionary. Two keys cannot be identical as they are used to index the values.

A float cannot be a map key.

Example:

map<int, string> mapInstance = new map<int, string>();

mapInstance.Set(5712, "Hello there");
mapInstance.Set(5716, "General Kenobi");

mapInstance.Get(5712);	// returns "Hello there"
mapInstance.Get(5715);	// /!\ returns "" (default string)
mapInstance.Get(5716);	// returns "General Kenobi"

mapInstance.GetKeyByValue("Hello there");	// returns 5712
mapInstance.GetKeyByValue("test");			// /!\ returns 0 (default int)

mapInstance.Contains(5716);			// true
mapInstance.ReplaceKey(5716, 5715);	// replaces "General Kenobi" key
mapInstance.Contains(5716);			// false

mapInstance.Contains(5715);	// true
mapInstance.Remove(5715);	// removes "General Kenobi" from the map
mapInstance.Contains(5715);	// false

Class

Passed by: reference

Naming prefix: none

Default value: null

A class is what defines an object's structure - said from the other end, an object is an instance of a class.

For more information on classes and Object Oriented Programming, see Object Oriented Programming Basics and Object Oriented Programming Advanced Usage.

Example:

class ObjectClass
{
	protected int m_iHealth = 100;

	int getHealth()
	{
		return m_iHealth;
	}

	bool setHealth(int health)
	{
		if (health < 0 || health > 100)
		{
			return false;
		}

		m_iHealth = health;
		return true;
	}
}

void HealthMethod()
{
	ObjectClass myObjectInstance; // myObjectInstance is null
	myObjectInstance = new ObjectClass();
	int objectHealth = myObjectInstance.getHealth();
	Print(objectHealth);
}

Typename

Passed by: reference

Naming prefix: none

Default value: null

A typename is class information (WIP: talk about reflection?)

Example:

class ObjectClass
{
	int Health = 100;
}

typename t; // t is null
t = ObjectClass;
string classname = TypeName(t); // returns "ObjectClass";
t = Type(classname); // returns ObjectClass typename too


Scope

A value has a lifetime, whether it is the game instance, mission or script duration; but it also has a scope that defines its existence and its accessibility.

void SetDammage(int dammage)
{
	int newHealth;							// newHealth variable is declared
	newHealth = m_iHealth - dammage;
	if (newHealth < 0)
	{
		newHealth = 0;
	}
	else if (newHealth > 100)
	{
		int difference = newHealth - 100;	// difference variable is declared
		Print("health overflow: " + difference);
		newHealth = 100;					// difference variable is destroyed after leaving the "else" scope and doesn't exist outside of it
	}
	// difference variable does not exist in this scope and cannot be used

	m_iHealth = newHealth;					// newHealth variable's last usage - the variable still exists

	Print("Health has been set");			// newHealth is destroyed after this line (on closing the "SetDammage" scope)
}

Incorrect Correct Best

if (soldiersHealth > 75)
{
	string message = "I'm doing well";
}
else
{
	// no conflict with the previous variable as scopes are different
	string message = "I don't feel so good";
}
Print(message); // error: message variable is undefined here

string message;
if (soldiersHealth > 75)
{
	message = "I'm doing well";
}
else
{
	message = "I don't feel so good";
}
Print(message); // OK

string message = "I don't feel so good";
if (soldiersHealth > 75)
{
	message = "I'm doing well";
}




Print(message); // OK


Casting

A value can sometimes be returned as one of its inherited classes or interfaced type - it can be casted ("forced" into a type) if the underlying type is known.

A wrong cast will return a null value - no exception will be thrown.

class Soldier_Base
{
	int scope = 0;
}

class B_Soldier_F : Soldier_Base
{
	int scope = 2;
	void SayHello()
	{
		Print("Hello there");
	}
}

Soldier_Base aSoldier = new B_Soldier_F(); // valid
aSoldier.SayHello(); // invalid - Soldier_Base does not have the SayHello method

B_Soldier_F mySoldierF = B_Soldier_F.Cast(aSoldier);
mySoldierF.SayHello(); // valid